Climate Change Adaptation

Expect The Unexpected: Integrating Climate Change Into All Municipal Decision Making

Communities in NWT are on the front lines of climate change. Mitigating and adapting to climate change impacts will be critical for the well-being of communities in the future. It will be necessary to consider climate change in almost every decision made by municipal governments. In order to do this, community leaders need to have the knowledge and resources to make decisions to address climate change.

The goal of this page is to provide relevant, helpful information on climate change for community leaders in NWT. We support research and coordination for adapting to climate change, and encourage communities to use our tools and information to help them consider their climate risks and how to adapt.

Integrating Climate Change – Report November 2015

On This Page

(Click on headlines to jump to chapters.)
What’s New?
Climate Change Definitions 
What’s special about climate change in the North?
Climate Change and Communities in the Northwest Territories
State of Knowledge On Permafrost Degradation & Community Infrastructure in the NWT
For More Information About Climate Change
What is climate adaptation?
What benefits are associated with climate change adaptation? What risks are associated with climate change adaptation?
How much will climate change adaptation cost?
What should NWT communities do?
Tools for adaptation assessment and planning
Adaptation Resources
• Infrastructure and Transportation
Water and Wastewater Management
Emergency Management
Human Health and Food Security
Economic and Social Impacts
On The Ground: Climate Change Adaptation Implementation

 

What’s New?

Permafrost 101

This 11-minute video will walk you through the basic information on permafrost in the NWT. Permafrost is one of the risks that community governments are exposed to but that receives little attention is the melting of permafrost and the impacts that it can have on community buildings.

 

Climate Change Adaptation Newsletter

March 2013

December 2012

Summer 2012

Smart Management Practices

Adaptation – Climate Change And Site Plans

Adaptation – Climate Change Clauses In Contracts

Adaptation – Community Drainage Plans

Adaptation – Permafrost And Hazard Mapping

Adaptation – The Climate Change Lens

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Climate Change Definitions

Climate Change
The climate of a place or region is changed if over an extended period (typically decades or longer) there is a statistically significant change in measurements of either the mean state or variability of the climate for that place or region. www.unisdr.org

Adaptation
Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new changing environment. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate or its effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC, TAR, 2001)

Permafrost
Ground (soil or rock and included ice and organic material) that remains at or below 0°C for at least two consecutive years (Van Everdingen, 1998)

Community Infrastructure
Infrastructure… includes transportation and transit, water and wastewater systems, waste management, and a fourth broad catch-all category.

This category includes a broad range of publicly owned capital assets, including most municipally-owned buildings, and social, cultural, and sports and recreational facilities. (FCM)

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What’s special about climate change in the North?

The Northern regions of the world are getting hotter at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and are expected to get hotter still. Temperatures are predicted to increase 4°C to 7°C over the next 100 years.

This temperature increase will have major impacts on northern people and ecosystems:

■ Communities across the north will feel impacts on roads, buildings and infrastructure as permafrost becomes less stable.
■ Many coastal towns and facilities around the Arctic face increasing risks from erosion and flooding due to rising sea levels, decreased sea ice, and increased storms.
■ Unpredictable ice formation and breakup are decreasing the use of ice roads for transportation and creating dangerous conditions for travel.
■ Wildlife and plant distribution is changing.
■ At least half the summer sea ice in the Arctic is projected to melt by the end of this century. These changes will have major global impacts, such as contributing to global sea-level rise and intensifying global warming, and will have impacts on species that use ice such as seals, walrus and polar bears.

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Climate Change and Communities in the Northwest Territories

A conference on “Climate Change and Communities in the NWT” was held in Yellowknife on March 29-30, 2011 and generated the following reports:

Climate Change and Communities in the NWT

PERMAFROST: The Ground Is Literally Melting Beneath Our Feet (Main Report)

Our conference partners were Ecology North and the Pembina Institute.

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State of Knowledge On Permafrost Degradation & Community Infrastructure in the NWT

Over the last century, the Western Arctic has experienced rapid and intense changes associated with climate change. Studies indicate that over the next 50 years, the impacts will be widespread in the Northwest Territories. Specifically, the impact of rising temperatures and precipitation levels on ecosystem processes as well as permafrost degradation will affect many aspects of life including the present and future infrastructures within NWT communities.

Project Report

Municipal Infrastructure and Permafrost
Municipal Infrastructure is expected to serve communities for 50 years or longer. Within the NWT, much of this relies on permafrost for stability. With the melting of permafrost, the performance of existing and future infrastructure could degrade. This includes water and wastewater treatment systems, building foundations, roads, utilities, and embankments.

As a result, damages could cost communities hundreds of millions of dollars to repair and without strong capacity available at the community level, critical infrastructure may be seriously compromised over the coming decades.

The role of the NWTAC
In May of 2009, on behalf of its 27 Member Communities, the NWTAC passed a motion to establish a Climate Change Working Group to lead the professional and institutional development of adaptation projects relating to Climate Change in the NWT. This Working Group consists of representatives from Member Communities and a GNWT representative to help ensure all work is coordinated with initiatives being undertaken by the GNWT.

To assist the Working Group, the NWTAC has hired a Project Coordinator who is responsible for project objectives.

Project Objectives

1. Identify and collect all information related to permafrost degradation and infrastructure in the NWT;
2. Classify the collected information and create a database available to communities in order to better understand what has been done to-date;
3. Identify gaps in the information needed for communities to be able to assess the vulnerability of their infrastructures;
4. Prepare a long-tern workplan for addressing identified gaps;
5. Develop a Best Practices summary of assessments, impacts and adaptation for community governments;
6. Identify potential funding sources for communities to address site specific vulnerability assessment of their infrastructure; and,
7. Communicate this information effectively to communities and stakeholders.

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For More Information About Climate Change

Environment Canada’s Global Climate Change Site: This site by the Government of Canada provides an overview of climate change information for Canada.

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment: This was a major report that evaluated knowledge on climate variability, climate change, and increased ultraviolet radiation in the Arctic. This report was produced in 2004.

Climate Resources page of NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center: This site provide technical data and documents about climate change from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Climate Change Information Kit: This site from the United Nations Environment program gives a detailed summary  of climate change issues.

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What is climate adaptation?

Adaptation can be defined as changes or adjustments to respond to actual or expected change.

So some adaptation will definitely be needed, but the degree of adaptation will depend on the degree of climate change and on characteristics of the communities.

The ability of a community to adapt to climate change rests on a number of factors:
• The exposure of a community to climate change depends on the probability of the impact happening (such as an increase in storms or forest fires) and the severity of impacts from the event (such as buildings that could be damaged)
• The adaptive capacity of a community to respond to change takes into account the social and economic characteristics of the community. Adaptive capacity is often closely linked to access to resources, such as education and training, economic opportunities, technology, infrastructure, and institutions.
• Adding these two factors together gives the vulnerability of the community to climate change.

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What benefits are associated with climate change adaptation? What risks are associated with climate change adaptation?

Benefits
Lower cost over the longer term: Many studies have shown that adaptation action in the near future will prevent even more expenses in the future
Direct economic benefits: Adaptation can also be helpful in identifying and taking advantage of any benefits associated with climate change such as lower heating costs.
Indirect benefits: Some adaptation action has other benefits, such as a community garden reducing the costs of food and bringing the community together.

Risks
• Up-front costs: Some communities are deterred by the cost of doing up-front work to assess climate change risks and adaptation strategies.
• Maladaption: This can be defined as action to reduce climate change that negatively affects another group of people or ecosystem.
• Locked in: Some communities are concerned that they may select an adaptation action now that will not be appropriate in the future, but that it will be impossible to change.

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How much will climate change adaptation cost?

Climate change is going to be costly no matter what. Mitigation and adaptation actions have major costs associated with them. The costs of climate change in your community will vary greatly depending on your location, climate conditions, hydrology, infrastructure, population, and social and economic conditions.

There are few studies available about the costs of climate change adaptation in NWT. A report by the National Roundtable on the Environment and Economy shows that the cost of climate change to Canada could be between $21 and $43 billion per year by 2050. An assessment of building foundations in six NWT communities showed that costs for rehabilitation could be up to $420 million.

However, most adaptation actions are less costly now than in the future. Addressing small issues before they become large issues can prevent big costs in the future.

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What should NWT communities do?

In brief, communities should bring together stakeholders and interested residents to identify and assess climate change impacts, prioritize the most costly or urgent issues, identify and assess the resources and options available for adaptation, and develop a plan for implementing the best options.

Some communities prefer to do this through a formalized adaptation planning process, while others may prefer to integrate it into other planning processes. There are benefits to both ways, as a separate adaptation plan may bring more attention to the issue of climate change in the community. However, climate change adaptation that is integrated in other planning processes (such as an Integrated Community Sustainability Plan) may be more useful to community staff and council. Regardless of whether a climate change adaptation plan is separate, climate change should be examined in an integrated and comprehensive manner. Climate change is only one of many issues communities are facing and so should be not separate from the rest of community processes and decisions in order to be efficient with time and resources.

See Tools for adaptation planning (link) for more information on how to get this process started.

Bringing together stakeholders

Who in the community is directly impacted by climate change and who is involved in limate change adaptation?

This is likely a large number of individuals or groups. They would likely include municipal staff, Aboriginal organization chief, council and staff, renewable resource management groups, the Housing Corporation, energy/electrical utilities, elders and landusers. Communities may wish to develop a smaller group of individuals that meet regularly along with public events to keep residents informed. Ensuring effective communication among stakeholders is key to successful adaptation collaboration.

Identify and assess climate change impacts

Climate change impact assessment should consider the following topics:
• Infrastructure and transportation
• Water and wastewater
• Emergency management
• Human health and food security
• Economic and social impacts

This assessment is easier if communities have information about predicted temperature increases in their region.

See the Adaptation Resources (link) to help you with some of these topics. The documents found here will give help you in identifying issues in your community.

Prioritize the Most Costly or Urgent Issues

The planning process should next prioritize adaptation actions. There will likely be many issues that need attention, but there may only be time and money for looking at one issue at a time.

Communities may wish to use a few ways to determine which issues are the most urgent.
• Financial cost is an important consideration. Some issues may become much more expensive if they are not addressed right away (such as foundation pilings).
• Some issues may be of great importance to the community (such as protection of a cultural site that is at risk of erosion).
• Some issues may be easy to address or offer additional benefits if they are addressed (such as improving insulation in buildings, which reduces heating costs).

Some communities may wish to use a risk assessment framework to identify the priority or urgency (e.g. low, medium and high).

Identify Adaptation Options

For each of the issues identified for the community, a number of adaptation options can be identified. Adaptation actions can be grouped in a few categories:
• No-Regrets: Completing these adaptation actions would be beneficial or necessary for the community even if future climate change is not as bad as expected.
• Low-regrets: Adaptation actions  that have a very low cost but have benefits with predicted future climate change
• Win-Win options: Adaptation actions that have adaptation benefits but also other benefits.

It’s helpful at this point to also identify which organizations would be best suited to carry out adaptation actions.

Implementation of adaptation actions

Beyond the planning process, communities must consider how to implement the plan. A successful adaptation implementation will:
• Provide a framework: Provides an outline for council, municipal staff and residents to move forward with action.
• Be flexible: Adaptation actions should be monitored for success, and changes should be easy to make if the need arises.
• Uses existing institutions and processes: This may be the most efficient way to complete adaption actions in the short term, while new institutions and processes may be needed in the longer term.
• Dealing with uncertainty: There can be a large amount of uncertainty around what will be the extent of climate change impacts as well as future changes in technology and economic and social conditions. The plan should address this by providing a number of options for a range of conditions.

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Tools for adaptation assessment and planning

UKCIP Adaptation wizard: The Adaptation Wizard, while designed for communities in the UK, is a very comprehensive and easy to use tool. It guides you through a series of steps using a number of smaller tools. Two important tools are:
Costings which provides a methodology to calculate the cost of climate impacts
and adaptation.
AdOpt helps identify adaptation strategies and options.

Changing Climate, Changing Communities: Guide for Municipal Climate Adaptation (2010): This guide is intended to assist local governments in creating an adaptation plan to address climate change. It provides a toolkit to guide the planning process.

Model Standard of Practice For Climate Change Planning:  This document by the Canadian Institute of Planners provides a framework for planners to follow as they go through an adaptation planning process.

Adapting to Climate Change: An Introduction for Canadian Municipalities (2010): This is a summary of essential elements of climate change adaptation in municipalities and case studies from Canadian cities. While none of the case studies are from NWT, valuable lessons may be gained from other jurisdictions.

Managing the Risk of Climate Change (2010): This interactive climate change risk management guide is based on a Canadian Standard for Risk Management for Aboriginal and northern communities. It provides a series of guidebooks to the planning process, including assessing risks and vulnerabilities, gaining stakeholder input and designing adaptation actions.

Promising Practices in Adaptation and Resilience: A resource guide for local leaders  (2010): This study is focused on large, southern (mostly American) cities, but does provide interesting case studies of cities that have integrated adaptation into existing planning processes, and examples of partnerships between municipal governments.

Canadian Communities’ Guidebook for Adaptation to Climate Change (2008): This guide for municipal governments contains a proactive decision-process that combines sustainable development, climate change adaptation and mitigation. It contains Canadian case studies and examples of potential adaptation actions.

Climate Change Planning Tools for First Nations Guidebooks (2006): This series of six guidebooks have been designed for First Nations communities. They outline the planning process for climate change adaptation and contain suggestions for  assessment of impacts and vulnerabilities, how to involve the community members and how to set community priorities.

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Adaptation Resources

Check out these resources for more information on climate change adaptation research in NWT and the Canadian north.

From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate (2007): This report assesses risk from climate change in various regions of Canada. Chapter 5 focuses on northern communities and infrastructure systems.

NWT Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (2008): This report by Environment and Natural Resources, GNWT, provides a summary of impacts on transportation, the environment, and infrastructure in the NWT and identifies some possible adaptation actions.

Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  (2007): This is one of a series of reports on climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  Chapter 15 of this report (Polar Regions) gives a summary of climate change impacts in polar regions, and identifies a few adaptation efforts. Chapter 17 focuses on general adaptation principles, tools and strategies. A fifth assessment report will be published in 2014.

Northern Regional Adaptation Collaborative: This collaborative effort attempts to bring together climate change adaptation planning and decision-making within northern Canada. This collaborative is focused on climate change impacts on infrastructure (particularly the impacts of permafrost on mining and transportation).

Pan-Territorial Adaptation Strategy  (2011): Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories have collaborated on an adaptation strategy outlining common impacts of climate change and opportunities for collaboration for adaptation.

Report on Adaptation to Climate Change Activities in Arctic Canada (2007): This report summaries climate change adaptation action from federal territorial government and organizations in the Canadian North.

Climate Change in the Yukon and Northwest Territories (2001): This poster is a visual presentation of climate change science and adaptation efforts in Northern Canada.

NWTAC’s “Permafrost: The Ground is Literally Melting Beneath Our Feet”:  A gap analysis of the vulnerabilities of the NWT’s communities to climate change and permafrost thaw in particular and the necessary resources to move this important agenda forward.

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Infrastructure and Transportation

Impacts on infrastructure and transportation are expected to be some of the most costly effects associated with climate change in the North. Buildings, roads, bridges, and irports are all expected to be impacted, and adaptation actions will likely include  hanges to the timing, method, intensity and location of building and transportation
activities.

Geotechnical Site Investigation Guidelines for Building Foundations in Permafrost (2010): The guide explains best practices for collecting information and evaluating site conditions for permafrost conditions.

Infrastructure foundations in permafrost: A practice guide for climate change adaptation (2009): These guidelines were designed to support the proper consideration of permafrost during planning, design and development of community infrastructure. It provides an assessment of trends in climate and permafrost melt in Northern Canada and characterizes the types of foundations used for community infrastructure and their general strengths and weaknesses.

Good Building Practices for Northern Facilities (2009): This set of guidelines is updated from the Design Standards and Guidelines for Northern Facilities. This is an advisory paper that provides updated northern codes and includes recommendations for energy efficiency and reduced life-cycle cost.

Flat Loop Thermosyphon Foundations in Warm Permafrost (2009): This report evaluates existing thermosyphon installations and makes recommendations for technical and site considerations for effective future use of further thermosyphons.

True North: Adapting Infrastructure to Climate Change in Northern Canada (2009): This report summarizes the predicted costs of climate change impacts on infrastructure in Canada’s territories and barriers and opportunities for adaptation action. NWT-specific components of this report include a discussion the shortening of the ice-road season and impacts on diamond mines, coastal erosion and permafrost melt.

Potential climate change-induced permafrost degradation and building foundations: An assessment of impacts and costs for five case communities in the Northwest Territories (2007): This report by Natural Resources Canada assessed the potential impacts and costs of thawing permafrost on building foundations in five NWT communities. This report found that in Inuvik total costs of foundation repair be up to $120 million, but that this cost could be partly mitigated with proactive maintenance.

The Role of Codes, Standards, and Related Instruments in Fostering Adaptation to Climate Change in Relation to Physical Infrastructure in Canada’s North (2008): This study, commissioned by the National Roundtable on the Environment and the economy, discusses the role of standards in preparing for climate change impacts on community infrastructure.

Mainstreaming the Risk-Based Management of Climate Change Impacts in Canada: Which Guidance is Needed?  This report by the Canadian Standards Association, discusses the possibility of developing climate change risk management standards for municipalities and private companies.

Climate Change and Transportation in the NWT (2007): This report determined the vulnerability of road and runway to climate change. It examined whether the current transportation system is capable of handling projected changes in climate. Adaptation strategies to adjust the type, timing and intensity of transportation are discussed.

Adapting Infrastructure to Climate Change in Canada’s Cities and Communities (2006): This literature review of community infrastructure impacts is national but includes northern implications of climate change to infrastructure and suggests adaptation actions.

Climate change, permafrost degradation and infrastructure adaptation: community case studies in the Mackenzie Valley (2007): This report assesses the effects of predicted permafrost conditions in Norman Wells and Tuktoyaktuk on infrastructure, with a literature review and thermal modelling. Part of the outcome of this report was to provide these communities with engineers for use in their decision-making. The researchers also provided each town with ideas and tools for developing adaptation strategies to deal with the projected changes in permafrost.

Engineering Protocol for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: This tool for engineers is designed to assess the climate change impacts on the design, operation, maintenance and management of buildings, roads, storm water and wastewater systems, and water resources. This tool is being used in the vulnerability assessment of Highway 3 (Yellowknife-Behchoko).

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Water and Wastewater Management

Climate change is expected to impact both quantity and quality of water in the NWT. Permafrost melt, changes in precipitation patterns and changes in the timing and duration of melt season and open water season will all greatly impact surface and groundwater flows. Together, these changes could lead to increases in sediments in water, changes to the movements of contaminants, and increased pressure on infrastructure components such as sewage lagoon berms, roads and building foundations. The potential for significant changes to flows has implications for planning and engineering of community water treatment, wastewater and solid waste infrastructure.

Vulnerability assessment protocol to of community water and wastewater systems (2011): Ecology North is developing a protocol to conduct site-specific assessments of the vulnerability of community water and wastewater systems to climate change in the NWT. Assessment and planning documents have been developed in collaboration with the communities of Deline, Wekweeti, Tsiigehtchic, Trout Lake and Ulukhaktok.

Northern Voices, Northern Waters: NWT Water Stewardship Strategy  (2010): The NWT Water Stewardship Strategy provides a vision, guiding principles, goals and approaches to water management and stewardship in the NWT.  The document briefly discusses climate change impacts on water.

Navigating the Waters of Change (2009): This report outlines potential climate change impacts to community water and wastewater systems in NWT. The report recommends ten action items to community, regional and federal governments and non-governmental Organizations/agencies to help strengthen the capacity of NWT communities to respond to the impacts of climate change on municipal water and wastewater system  including site-specific assessments of water systems, increased water monitoring, controlled release of contaminants and exploration of options for wastewater treatment.

Protecting Drinking Water in Indigenous Communities in Canada’s North Program (2010): This project is focused on protection of that the natural sources of drinking water from potential threats such as hazardous chemicals and wastewater. It also includes a capacity-building component that works to increase community awareness, and enhance technical expertise of community water stewards.

The Implications of Climate Change for Canada´s Boundary and Transboundary Water Management (2003): This project discusses the potential impacts of climate change on boundary and transboundary water basins between Canada and the United States and between provinces and territories, including the waters of the Mackenzie River Basin.

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Emergency Management

Climate change is expected to lead to increased frequency and severity of weather events and thus emergency preparedness will become increasingly especially. In coastal communities, preparation for storms and flooding will be more necessary, while in southern regions of the NWT, it is expected that forest fire frequency will increase.

Emergency Planning Tool for Communities and Community Emergency Plan Template and Instruction Manual (2008): This tool aims to help communities achieve a state of preparedness for emergencies. Increased frequency and severity of weather events are expected with climate change.  A template is provided so that communities can create an emergency plan. The plan will define the roles and responsibilities of agencies during an emergency and in order to facilitate an effective and coordinated response.

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Human Health and Food Security

Climate change is linked to human health and food through impacts such as changes to
the availability and quality of traditional foods like caribou and fish. Other impacts on human health could include personal safety that are changing hunting and traveling practices, increased warm weather days.

Climate Change as a Health Determinant in Aklavik, Northwest Territories (2010): This study investigated the connection between health and climate change in regards to food and diet of residents of Aklavik. This study was hosted by Arctic Health Research Network, Health Canada and Institute for Circumpolar Health Research.

Arctic Peoples, Culture, Resilience and Caribou (2008-2011): This project attempts to assess the evolving relationship between human and caribou across Northern Canada, and discusses how caribou are related to community resilience and climate change adaptation. This initiative involved Arctic Athabaskan Council and other aboriginal groups and academic researchers.

Barren-Ground Caribou Management Strategy for the NWT 2011– 2015: This management strategy produced by Environment and Natural Resources, GNWT briefly discusses the impacts of climate change on barren-ground caribou and identifies strategies to support the herd.

Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity (2008): This report summarizes health effects and adaptive actions of climate change in Canada. Chapter 7 of this report focuses on the northern territories. For NWT, heath issues associated with food security, water contamination, and accidents due to unpredictability of weather conditions were identified as the most pressing threats.

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Chapter 13:  Hunting, fishing, and gathering: Indigenous peoples and renewable resource use in the Arctic (2005): This chapter discusses the present economic, social, and cultural importance of harvesting renewable resources for arctic peoples. One of the case studies focuses on Sachs Harbour, NWT. It assesses the past, present and future impacts of climate change on harvesting activities and considers adaptive actions including modifications to the limit, location and method of harvest.

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Economic and Social Impacts

Climate change is expected to have both positive and negative impacts on the economy of the NWT. Some sectors, such as tourism and offshore shipping, may see increased
activity, while others such as onshore transportation may show negative impacts.

Modeling the Impact of Melting Permafrost on Forest Landscapes Project Description: A
network of permanent ground and satellite-based monitoring plots is being established as part of the inventory program. These plots will be used to monitor forest growth and change to the forest over time.  This work may inform future forestry activities in that region.

Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations on Sea Ice Transportation in Canada’s Northwest Passage (2007): This report by Natural Resources Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada examines the impacts of the loss of seasonal ice on transportation and discusses policy options for increasing communication and interaction between northern communities, shippers and researchers.

Greening the NWT Economy: Local Pathways to Territorial Prosperity (2009): This report by Ecology North summarizes the impacts of climate change on the NWT economy, outlines the principles for a green economy and provides case studies of successful economic adaptation.

Canadian Inuit Perspectives on Climate Change and Unikkaaqatigiit – Putting the Human Face on Climate Change: Perspectives from the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (2005): These reports created by a number of Inuit and academic organizations were the result of a series of workshops focused on local adaptation actions and observations of climate change in Arctic communities. These reports are focused on social and economic implications of climate change and impacts on traditional lifestyle.

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On The Ground: Climate Change Adaptation Implementation

Airport and highway evaluation, rehabilitation, permafrost monitoring and routing (Highway 3): The GNWT Department of Transportation has undertaken a program of research, monitoring, repair and replacement of a number of highways and airports in NWT. In particular, Highway 3 between Yellowknife and Behchoko, is being evaluated to complete a vulnerability assessment using engineering tools.

Deh Cho Bridge Project: The Deh Cho will span the Mackenzie River near Fort Providence on NWT Highway 3. The bridge will replace the operations of the Merv Hardie Ferry and the Mackenzie River Ice Crossing currently at that location. The bridge will provide year round access and overcome climate change threats to the present
ferry and ice crossing due to warm temperatures and low water levels.

Floe Edge Service: This online service provides images of ice floes in regions around Arctic communities to encourage safe travel on sea ice.

Iqaluit’s Sustainable Subdivision: This housing area was developed with the vision of supporting sustainable human and environment systems. The subdivision has a number of features that address climate change impacts, including aligning roads with prevailing winds to help keep them clear in the face of projected increase in snowfall and low-flow
showerheads and toilets to reduce load on municipal infrastructure. Houses were designed to be small and energy efficient to reduce costs for homeowners, and the subdivision was designed with walking paths and to protect berry-picking areas.

Mackenzie Valley Winter Road Bridge Construction Program (2000): The project installed permanent water crossings at 10 locations along the Mackenzie Valley Winter Road between Wrigley and Norman Wells to extend the winter road season.

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